Texts for topics - Мегазбірка тем з англійської мови
ENTERTAINMENT & LEISURE
POLTAVA MUSEUM OF LOCAL HISTORY
TEXT FOR REPORT AND DISCUSSION
The exposition of the Poltava Museum of Local History, which was established in 1891 on the initiative of professor V. V. Dokuchaev, an outstanding specialist in soil science, shows the century-old history of the Poltava region.
The house of the Museum was built in 1902—1908 according to the project by О. I. Shirshov and V. G. Krichevsky for the "gubernia zemstvo".
In 1920 the central proletarian museum of the Poltava region was opened — one of the first in Ukraine.
The Poltava Museum is one of the largest in Ukraine. Its exposition has over 180 000 exhibits including interesting collections and unique items. The exposition is decorated in modern style with a wide use of up-to-date facilities: films, records and playback facilities, diorama and slide projectors. The foundation of the dendropark is laid on the territory of the Museum. Here one can see the samples of the ancient monumental sculpture — Polovetsky stone images.
There are three sections in the Museum: natural history, history of pre-October period, and history of the modern society.
The section of the natural history devoted to nature gives the general geographical characteristic of the region, acquaintsvisitors with its geological structure, minerals, water resources, plants and wildlife. Dioramas, models of landscape, collections of animals and plants reveal the inexhaustible natural resources and charming beauty of the Poltava region. In the hall visitors can see the skeleton of the mammoth — one of the most interesting exhibits of the section.
The section of the history of the pre-October period opens with the exhibits found in the Poltava area during archeological excavations. The site of an ancient town of Bilsk, situated in present Kotelevsky district of the Poltava region, is among significant memorable places of the 1st millenium В. C. It is a single memorable place in Eastern Europe which gives the idea of a considerable development of an intertribal centre of the VII—III c.c. B.C. Some researchers suppose that it was the site of the ancient town Ghelon (Gelonus) — the centre of Ghelon and Budin tribes — mentioned by Herodotus, an ancient Greek historian.
The next part reveals the history of the Poltava region in the period of Kievan Rus. Farming, animal husbandry, and handicraft constituted the basis of the economy of the ancient Russian state. In the hall one can see agricultural implements of the XI—XIIIth centuries, samples of blacksmith's, potter's and jeweller's articles.
Archeological data confirm the existence of Ltava as it was mentioned in the old chronicle, it was one of the advanced posts of Kievan Rus on the left bank of the Dnieper which was situated on the territory of the present day Poltava. Ltava was mentioned for the first time in the old chronicle in Ipaty annals in 1174.
Documents, numerous exhibits tell us of the Poltava region in the years of the war of liberation of the Ukrainian people in 1648—1654 against Polish gentry's rule which resulted in the reunion of Ukraine with Russia.
The Ukrainian people together with Russian people waged common struggle against Turkish and Tatar invaders in the second half of the XVIlth — the beginning of the XVIIIth c. c. In 1695 the Turkish fortress Kizikermen was captured. The bell for the Cathedral of Assumption in Poltava was cast in mould from Turkish cannons captured during the battle. It weighs about two tons. Now it is one of the displays of the Museum. In the autumn of 1708 the army of the Swedish king Karl XII invaded the territory of Ukraine.
The victory of the Russian troops over the Swedes in the battle of Poltava in 1709 brought unfading glory to this town. A separate exposition is dedicated to these event's.
The uprising of Decembrists (December 1825) came down in the history of the country as a striking page. It was the first open armed revolt in Russia against the yoke of serfdom and autocracy. The names of Decembrists brothers Muravyov-Apostols, Kapnists, Borisovs, and others are closely connected with Poltava.
Outstanding figures of the Ukrainain culture such as G. Skovoroda, a prominent enlighter, I. Kotlyarevsky, T. Shevchenko, M. Gogol, Panas Mirny, V. Korolenko, famous writers, M. Lysenko, a composer, G. Myasoedov, O. Slastion, M. Bashkirtseva, the artists lived and worked in the Poltava region.
The Museum keeps their portraits, personal belongings, and materials concerning their activities.
In the Museum visitors can see documents concerning the rebellion of some thousand soldiers of the Kremenchug garrison in 1916 who refused to go to the front.
Especially rich is the section portraying the history of the Soviet society. Among the displays are documents, newspaper clipping, leaflets, photographs, placards which reproduce the developments of the stormy days of October Revolution.
Numerous materials of the exposition highlight the period of modern society, industrialization and collectivization. A separate section of the exposition is dedicated to the activity of a prominent Soviet pedagogue A. Makarenko who organized the labour settlement for shelterless in the Poltava region.
In Museum there are materials dedicated to the native of Poltava Yu. Kondratyuk, an outstanding scientist, one of the first creators and researchers of the rocket engineering and the theory of space flights.
The topic of the heroic struggle of the Soviet people against fascist German invaders in the years of the Great Patriotic War (1941 — 1945), the participation of Poltavites in this fight is shown in a large exposition situated in two halls. Here one can see the documents which tell us of the legendary partisan leader, twice Hero of the Soviet Union S. A. Kovpak, of the activity of the underground group in Poltava, headed by Hero of the Soviet Union, Lyalya Ubijvovk. For bravery and heroism displayed in the battles for the Motherland over 50 000 Poltavites were awarded orders and medals, 180 received the highest title of Hero of the Soviet Union, and two had this title conferred upon them twice.
Poltavites restored their economy. Nowadays the Poltava region is called an area of developed industry and advanced agriculture. Oil and natural gas are extracted here, powerful trucks, turbines and daylight lamps, artificial diamonds and diamonds point tools are made, diesel locomotives are repaired here. The area is known for bumper crops of grain, for dairy and meat products. Such powerful enterprises as Kremenchug automobile plant, the railway-carriage repair works, petroleum processing plant, the Poltava diesel locomotives repair works and turbomechanical plant, the "Khimmash" plant, the Poltava mining and metallurgical plant have grown here. The Museum has the samples of the production of the enterprises of the region, which is exported into more than 60 countries of the world.
exhibit [ɪg'zɪbɪt] — експонат
to acquaint [ə'kweɪnt] — знайомити
to confirm [kən'fə:m] — підтверджувати
to mention ['men,ʃ(ə)n] — згадувати
reunion [rɪ(:)'ju:njən] — возз'єднання
display [dɪs'pleɪ] — виставка, показ
personal belongings [pə:snl bɪlɔŋɪŋs] — особисті речі
to dedicate ['dedɪkeɪt] — присвячувати
1. When was the Poltava Museum of Local History established?
2. When was the house of the Museum built?
3. When was it opened?
4. What facts can you give to prove that the Museum is one of the largest in Ukraine?
5. How many sections are there in the Museum ?
6. Wit at are displayed in the section of the history of pre-October period?
7. What does the section devoted to nature give?